Those whose daily practice involves Gongyo from The Liturgy of Nichiren Buddhism (prayer book) will twice daily offer an Appreciation for the Gohonzon in the second silent prayer: “I acknowledge my debt of gratitude and offer profound appreciation for the Dai-Gohonzon of the Three Great Secret Laws, which was bestowed upon the entire world; to Nichiren Daishonin, the Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law…”. While it goes without saying that the words ‘secret’ and ‘law’ should spike anyones curiousity, it seems a deeper understanding might too often be skimmed over. In this post, we’ve turned to questioning what are the Three Great Secret Laws of the Dai-Gohonzon that one is to acknowledge such gratitude and profound appreciation for? Moreover, why are they secret? After looking to a number of different resources, we hope a clearer picture has begun to appear.
To begin with, many might already know on the surface what the laws are. In Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations the Three Great Secret Laws are identified as the Honzon, Kaidan and Daimoku. Many might also understand the meaning of these as Honzon representing the calligraphic Gohonzon scroll (object of devotion), Kaidan representing the moral precepts and place of practice, and Daimoku, the chanting of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. But is that all there is to it? As Nichiren formed his entire practice around these ‘laws’, surely there must be so much more to them than their superficial expression. What are these laws beyond the surface?
During our research, it was very interesting to find in Nichiren’s Three Secrets by Paul O. Ingram  and The Teaching of the Eightfold Path by Shin Yatomi (Living Buddhism)  explanations of other core Buddhist concepts in relation to Nichiren Buddhism. For those familiar with other practices of Buddhism, such core concepts as the Three Jewels, Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, both of these authors mention them in relation to the Three Great Secret Laws. One of us has indeed come from another background of Buddhist practice and often questioned where these foundational elements were. Hopefully this post can help share more about these core concepts of historical Buddhism, which can also all now be understood through the Three Great Secret Laws. We’ll look at this briefly below before continuing to explore the Three Great Secret Laws in depth.
… the “Three Jewels” [Three Refuges] of early Buddhism – taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha – are echoed in Nichiren’s Three Great Secret Laws. In the age of mappo, daimoku and the honzon have replaced Buddha and Dharma because fixing the mind on the sacred title as inscribed in the honzon leads the devotee to an experience of awakening to his own innate Buddha Nature, while the honzon itself becomes equivalent to the Dharma to which he has awakened. Kaidan supersedes sangha (“community”) because it is the place for the establishment of a new Buddhist community in the age of mappo.
The Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path (taken from Shin Yatomi’s writing in SGI-USA Living Buddhism (November-December 2006)).
“Simply put, the teaching of the four noble truths illuminates the causality of suffering and enlightenment – why people suffer and how they can overcome their suffering and attain supreme happiness.
The last of the four noble truths refers to the teaching of the eightfold path, which consists of right views, right thinking, right speech, right action, right way of life, right endeavour, right mindfulness and right meditation…
The eight aspects of the path are often categorized into the ‘three types of learning,’ or three disciplines, which Buddhist practitioners seek to master. They are precepts (also morality), meditation (also concentration) and wisdom. In terms of the eightfold path, right speech, right action and right way of life correspond to precepts. Right endeavour, right mindfulness and right meditation correspond to meditation. Right view and right thinking correspond to wisdom. Right endeavour is sometimes considered as part of wisdom or as related to all three types of learning.
The three types of learning are connected. Precepts are intended to prevent error and stem evil in thought, word and deed. Meditation is a practice designed to focus the mind and attain tranquillity. Wisdom enables us to overcome illusions and realize the truth. Through observing precepts, we can satisfy our conscience and rid ourselves of regret or shame. Through observing precepts, we can also regulate our physical activities and improve our health. Through observing precepts, therefore, we can prepare for the discipline of meditation. Through meditation, we can attain a state of tranquillity, which, in turn, helps develop the wisdom to overcome our illusions and attain enlightenment.
The three types of learning are said to encompass all aspects of Buddhist doctrines and practice… In this regard, Nichiren Daishonin explains, “The three types of learning, namely, precepts, meditation, and wisdom, are represented by the Three Great Secret Laws embodied in the ‘Life Span’ chapter [of the Lotus Sutra]” (The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings, p.142).
In Nichiren Buddhism, the three types of learning correspond to the Three Great Secret Laws – the object of devotion of the essential teaching, the daimoku (chanting Nam-myoho-renge-kyo) of the essential teaching and the sanctuary of the essential teaching. Specifically, the object of devotion corresponds to meditation, the sanctuary to precepts and the chanting of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo to wisdom.”
Without further ado, let us begin this exploration starting with the SGI online dictionary of Buddhism:
Three Great Secret Laws
“…The Three Great Secret Laws represent Nichiren’s embodiment of the Mystic Law, to which he was enlightened, in a form that all people can practice and thereby gain access to that Law within their own lives. He associated the Three Great Secret Laws with the three types of learning set forth in Buddhism—precepts, meditation, and wisdom. Specifically, the object of devotion [Honzon] corresponds to meditation, the sanctuary to precepts [Kaidan], and the daimoku to wisdom…”
As can be seen from this definition, the Three Great Secret Laws extend far beyond their separate physical or descriptive manifestation. They are in fact an embodiment of the Mystic Law as the practitioner themselves. This is important to note as it helps change ones perspective of looking outwards (externally or dualistically) towards these laws and instead interpreting them as a process of becoming. One does not chant Daimoku to the Gohonzon. Rather, we interpret that one becomes the chanting and the Gohonzon as an inseparable co-arising embodiment. Let us explore this in more detail.
To begin, we would first like to turn to where Nichiren makes reference to the Three Great Secret Laws. We looked to two of the ten major writings of Nichiren that were identified by Nikko Shonin (1246-1333) as his most important writings. These are On Taking the Essence of the Lotus Sutra (Hokke Shuyo Sho) and On Repaying Debts of Gratitude (Ho’on-sho). Here, Nichiren identifies these secret laws in question/answer format:
On Taking the Essence of the Lotus Sutra (Hokke Shuyo Sho)
Question: What is the secret dharma that Nagarjuna,* Vasubandhu,* T’ien-t’ai and Dengyo did not spread during two thousands and some years after the Buddha’s extinction?
Answer: They are the Honzon (Most Venerable One)* and Kaidan* (Precept dais) of the essential section, and the five-character Daimoku* of the Lotus Sutra.
On Repaying Debts of Gratitude (Ho’on-sho)
Question: Is there a correct teaching that was not propagated even by T’ient’ai and Dengyo?
Answer: Yes, there is.
Question: What sort of teaching is it?
Answer: It consists of three things. It was left behind by the Buddha for the sake of those who live in the Latter Day of the Law. It is the correct teaching that was never propagated by Mahakashyapa or Ananda, Ashvaghosha or Nagarjuna, T’ien-t’ai or Dengyo.
Question: What form does it take?
Answer: First, Japan and all the other countries throughout Jambudvipa should all make the Shakyamuni Buddha of the essential teaching their object of devotion. In other words, the Shakyamuni and Many Treasures who appear in the treasure tower, all the other Buddhas, and the four bodhisattvas, including Superior Practices, will act as attendants to this Buddha. Second, there is the sanctuary of the essential teaching. Third, in Japan, China, India, and all the other countries of Jambudvipa, every person, regardless of whether wise or ignorant, will set aside other practices and join in the chanting of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. This teaching has never been taught before. Here in the entire land of Jambudvipa, in all the 2,225 years since the passing of the Buddha, not a single person chanted it. Nichiren alone, without sparing his voice, now chants Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.
As stated, the Three Great Secret Laws are represented by the Honzon, Kaidan and Daimoku. For clarity’s sake, we would like to approach each of these laws individually. But it must be reminded as elucidated previously that this is not how they truly function. In fact, Kaidan and Daimoku are derived from the Honzon. So we will start by looking at Honzon.
“Hence the object of devotion is the core of all three. For this reason the Gohonzon, or object of devotion, is also referred to as the One Great Secret Law.”
The core of the Three Great Secret Laws: The Gohonzon, or the object of devotion of the essential teaching, is the core of the Three Great Secret Laws in Nichiren’s doctrine and represents the purpose of his life.
From the various ways the Honzon is described throughout the literature, it seems there is far more to it than a paper scroll with calligraphy. Indeed, it has been directly connected to meditation – as mentioned previously in the SGI Online Dictionary of Buddhism, and as the core of all three laws. We would like to return to the SGI Online Dictionary of Buddhism and then, Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations.
“…The object of devotion [Honzon] in terms of the Law: Nichiren’s mandala that embodies the eternal and intrinsic Law of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo. That Law is the source of all Buddhas and the seed of Buddhahood for all people. In other words, Nichiren identified Nam-myoho-renge-kyo as the ultimate Law permeating life and the universe, and embodied it in the form of a mandala…
“The term honzon refers to the focus or chief object of reverence in Nichiren’s system… …the actual physical honzon is a mandara (derived from the Sanskrit: mandala). In Japanese Buddhism this is “a devotional object of which Buddhas and bodhisattvas are depicted or on which a doctrine is expressed….[For many Japanese Buddhist schools it is] the embodiment of enlightenment or truth” (English Buddhist Dictionary Committee 2002: 390-1). Here the honzon is a mandara centred on Sakyamuni as the primordial Buddha, designed by Nichiren in 1279 and based on the Lotus Sutra. In the centre is the formula Namu-myoho-renge-kyo – Adoration (or Reverence) to the Lotus Sutra. Around it are written the names of the cardinal directions, Sakyamuni, Prabhutaratna, the assembly of other beings who appear in the Lotus Sutra, and those who represent the true lineage of the teachings, each in its appropriate position.”
As such, it seems that the Honzon as meditation requires the practitioner as an essential element. In this way, the Honzon as meditation is a co-arising phenomena that assists a practitioner in awakening to the same Mystic Law of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo that is their very life itself. As such, the gohonzon becomes a focal point helping the practitioner realize they literally are the reality of their very own fundamental nature depicted within it. Approached in this way, the Honzon can be seen as a focal point for meditation where the person and the law become one and the same. As seen below:
…The oneness of the Person and the Law: This means that the object of devotion in terms of the Person and the object of devotion in terms of the Law are one in their essence. The Law is inseparable from the Person, and vice versa. The object of devotion in terms of the Law is the physical embodiment, as a mandala (the Gohonzon), of the eternal and intrinsic Law of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo…”
In trying to understand this process, we have thought about it as follows: The Honzon becomes a focusing tool (mandala) for meditation. Indeed, it is the Honzon combined with chanting Daimoku (another secret law) that is an extremely powerful tool to focus and free one’s mind from its habit of becoming attached to every passing thought that arises; a process to help stop identifying with and acting on stored tendencies (also known as Karma) that usually prevent us from awakening to or believing in our Buddha Nature. This continuous stream of thought is sometimes referred to as the ‘monkey mind’ because its nature is to jump from thought to thought like a monkey jumps from tree to tree – carrying us away with its never ending distractions and identifications. This obviously prevents one from being present in one’s own life. When continuously acted upon/identified with, this distracted state leads one uncontrollably in various directions, creating further actions/thoughts (also known as Karma) based on the same tendencies of ignorance (not realizing/interacting with phenomenal world as it truly is – see The Three Poisons: ignorance, greed and anger). All in all, one will be kept in the cycle of the “sufferings of life and death” or the Wheel of Samsara. From what we understand, The Honzon as a law of meditation is trying to help us realize that Nam-myoho-renge-kyo is our very life itself and this is the realization of Ichinen Sanzen in actuality. To further expand on this, let us turn to an excerpt from Nichiren’s Three Secrets by Paul O. Ingram.
… even though Nichiren’s mandala [honzon] is not cyclic in pattern, its function is fundamentally the same as any mandala. It graphically represents the “sacred power” of Sakyamuni as absolute reality, the “disintegration” of this sacred power into specific manifestations (the various historical Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas), and the “reintegration” of sacred power back into itself, since all Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are partial manifestations of the absolute reality of Sakyamuni. Consequently, by chanting daimoku before the honzon, the devotee internalizes this sacred power and is thereby able to reintegrate the forces of fragmentation that are the result of life in the age of mappo in this “centre”. For this reason, uttering daimoku while “fixing the mind” meditatively on the honzon, believing what the honzon symbolizes – that Sakyamuni, the Lotus Sutra, and the devotee are one – accomplishes for the devotee what the established schools of Buddhism attempted by the traditional practices of meditation and ethical discipline. As Anesaki has noted, “the object of worship… is to be sought nowhere but in the inner most recesses of every man’s nature, because the final aim of worship is the complete realization of Supreme Being (i.e., Sakyamuni) in ourselves”35).
Jacqueline Stone describes this process wonderfully in her dissertation as quoted below:
“In the act of chanting the daimoku, Nichiren taught, as in more traditional forms of meditation, the subject/object barrier collapses, and the mind of the practitioner (single thought-moment) becomes one with the entire phenomenal world (three thousand realms). Chanting the title of the Lotus thus opens a point of access to non-dual reality in which the ordinary person and the Dharma are identified, the eternal, timeless Buddha realm breaks through into the present moment, and the saga world of our empirical experience becomes the Buddha land. In speaking of this, Nichiren borrowed a phrase then current in both Tendai and Shingon Buddhism: the “attainment of Buddhood in this very body” (sokushin jobutsu).”
Thus from what we understand, the practitioner as the three laws embodied is a meditative practice where the oneness of the person and the Mystic Law become a single non-dual embodiment.
… the law of daimoku, or “title”, meaning the five Chinese characters of the title of the Lotus Sutra, pronounced in Japanese as myoho, ren, ge, kyo, to which he added namu, literally “to take refuge in”. The law of daimoku is thus the practice of meditatively repeating over and over again the phrase namu myoho renge kyo… 
(see: Dependent Origination: The Doctrine of Interdependence for further examination of Nam Myoho Renge Kyo)
After reading the above it would be very easy to stop here and say Daimoku is simply the chanting of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, but we feel this would definitely leave out some critical aspects that help clarify its role in the practice. You see, Daimoku is also associated with wisdom in regards to the three types of learning in Buddhism. This is a critical to reflect upon.
Looking again to Jacqueline Stone’s description that was shared earlier, we can begin to explore why Daimoku is associated with wisdom,
“Chanting the title of the Lotus thus opens a point of access to non-dual reality in which the ordinary person and the Dharma are identified, the eternal, timeless Buddha realm breaks through into the present moment, and the saga world of our empirical experience becomes the Buddha land.”
In this sense, one can easily see that Daimoku becomes another meditative tool to gain deep wisdom into our true nature. It’s practice helps us to see past our limited and dualistic perspective and perceive the Truth of oneness of self and environment (see Dependent Origination, Ichinen Sanzen). In this process we can begin to recognize our Buddha Nature (potential for Buddhahood) and through this, gain the wisdom that allows us to see beyond our limited perspectives of “self” and “environment” as separately existing phenomena. Instead, the process of Daimoku might allow us to awaken to the interdependent co-arising of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, which when fully embodied, becomes our own Buddhahood realized. The purpose of chanting daimoku then is to attain perfect and complete awakening (enlightenment). From this perspective, it becomes quite easy to see why Daimoku is associated with wisdom.
Behind the law of daimoku, as well as the other two great secret laws, was Nichiren’s use of the concept of “Buddha Mind” (bodhicitta)23, again appropriated from the Mahayana-Tendai tradition. According to this doctrine, all sentient beings possess the potentiality for becoming actual Buddhas, even in the age of mappo, because all beings possess “Buddha Mind”, which Nichiren located in what Western psychology is apt to call the “unconscious mind”. For this reason, enlightenment is latent in all persons… In other words, to fervently chant daimoku is an act of faith which raises the unconscious bodhicitta to conscious awareness, which in turn results in the experience of enlightenment… 
The practice of Daimoku then seems to require two essential components: Faith (see post on “No Prayer Will Go Unanswered”) in the sense of resolute conviction in your Buddha Nature (potential for attaining Buddhahood) and the actual meditative practice of chanting. When Daimoku is performed with the Honzon, we have the opportunity to enter into a consciousness where our vantage point has the potential to extend from a place of “Buddha Mind”. Here, deep insight and wisdom can be gained regarding the nature of reality and our own lives.
Let’s turn again to to Nichiren’s Three Secrets by Paul O. Ingram before moving to the secret law of Kaidan.
Chanted over and over again, daimoku becomes, as Harry M. Buck has noted 28), incarnate in the honzon, the second of the Three Great Secret Laws. Accordingly, daimoku and honzon complement one another, for chanting daimoku places the devotee at the “centre” of the honzon (hon, “origin”, “source”; son, “supremacy”). Therefore, as daimoku is a verbal embodiment of the entire truth and saving power of the Lotus Sutra, the honzon is a visual embodiment of this same truth and power because it is a calligraphic representation of daimoku in mandala form, again an extension of the principle of ichinen sanzen. 
Kaidan in Nichiren Buddhism is a little more difficult to form a clear interpretation of as it has been interpreted in a variety of ways. Some believe it is an actual physical location where his ordination platform would eminate from, as can be seen below. Others have recognized it as Nichiren’s precept platform, and still others recognize it as any place of direct practice, which is sort of a combination of both.
The kaidan as the last of the Three Great Secret Laws is essentially an expression of Nichiren’s concern that the “succession” of his teachings be preserved and continued in the future after his death. He thus dreamed of establishing a national centre with his own “ordination platform” from which his teachings would emanate throughout the whole world, and for this purpose, he selected his final retreat, Mount Minobu. He died before he could accomplish his dream. 
To better understand Kaidan as a precept platform, we will again mention the article from Living Buddhism that explains Buddhist precept platforms. We will then explore how this is incorporated into the practice of Nichiren Buddhism, a practice that seemingly lacks a defined precept platform.
The Sanskrit and Pali word for precepts or morality is sila, which means “habitual action.” The purpose of sila is to guide behaviour and cultivate virtue through striving to make wholesome actions into one’s habits. Precepts are not commandments enforced by religious authority; they are observed through one’s own commitment or vow. In this sense, precepts are different from monastic code (Skt, Pali vinaya) often enforced by penalties to ensure harmonious conduct within a Buddhist community.
Through observing precepts, we can satisfy our conscience and rid ourselves of regret or shame. Through observing precepts, we can also regulate our physical activities and improve our health. Through observing precepts, therefore, we can prepare for the discipline of meditation.
Regarding Kaidan as a precept platform in Nichiren Buddhism, the SGI Online Dictionary explains that embracing the Gohonzon as the object of devotion is the only precept. “…embracing this object of devotion called the Gohonzon is the only precept in Nichiren’s teaching, the place where it is enshrined corresponds to the place where one vows to observe the Buddhist precepts—the ordination platform, or sanctuary, of the essential teaching.” You may be asking, as we were, how can embracing the Gohonzon be the only precept in Nichiren Buddhism? To better understand this, we found the below from Chapter 11: The Three Great Secret Dharmas, Real Life with Ryuei.
“Nichiren Buddhism teaches that the Hīnayāna precept platform and the Mahāyāna precept platform are now obsolete: the time has arrived for the precept platform of the diamond chalice precept which subsumes all other precepts. The practice of Nichiren Buddhism ensures that morality and ethics are not unthinking, rigid adherence to any specific code of conduct. Rather, the moral and ethical life is based directly upon the wisdom and compassion of buddhahood. There is no need to go to a specially sanctioned place in order to receive the diamond chalice precept. Wherever Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō is recited becomes the precept platform where we can dedicate our lives to the Wonderful Dharma and attain enlightenment. It is the place where we receive the Wonderful Dharma of the Lotus Flower Teaching directly from the Eternal Śākyamuni Buddha, just as the bodhisattvas from beneath the earth received it during the ceremony in the air.”
In this example, we can see that Kaidan can be both the sanctuary for practice of Daimoku and the precept platform combined by recognizing that wherever Nam-myoho-renge-kyo is recited it becomes the precept platform [and place] where we can dedicate our lives to the Wonderful Dharma and attain enlightenment. This can also be clearly seen in Ingram’s description of the “internal” real Kaidan below.
However, the future kaidan will not only be a place of ordination, preservation of the teachings, and a concrete symbol of world wide faith in the Lotus Sutra. Nichiren also believed that the kaidan is in fact any place where the devotee receives “in his body” Sakyamuni’s Dharma in the form of daimoku and honzon 39). In this sense, even though externally the kaidan is a place which will be physically located at the foot of Mount Minobu, internally the real kaidan, like the center of Nichiren’s mandala, is “located” in the heart of any person at any time who is totally devoted to the practice of daimoku.
From this, we interpret the Kaidan as any place of direct practice. Anywhere one is totally devoted to Daimoku becomes the sanctuary; through the wisdom gained in Daimoku, the precepts become a self-evident way of living that naturally blossoms out of the very embodiment of the Mystic Law itself. All of this instead of a set of rules that one blindly follows. In other words, one realizes and acts out of their very own Buddha Nature.
Finally why the secret? It seems strange that something given thanks for is continually referred to in this way without greater understanding. As usual, the SGI Library was of help here:
“They are called secret because they are implicit in the text of the “Life Span” (sixteenth) chapter of the Lotus Sutra and remained hidden or unknown until Nichiren revealed them. Nichiren regarded them as the vital teaching that Shakyamuni Buddha transferred to Bodhisattva Superior Practices in the “Supernatural Powers” (twenty-first) chapter of the sutra. He regarded his mission as one with that of Bodhisattva Superior Practices”.
In other words, the laws are considered secret because Nichiren found them hidden within the Lotus Sutra. We are certain there is so much more to investigate than this, and will leave further analysis to a future post.
We have learned that The Three Great Secret Laws essentially are the core practice of Nichiren Buddhism. They are the “secret” teachings that Nichiren found hidden in the Lotus Sutra and that he made available to everyone as a practice for the age of mappo. These three secret laws relate to the three types of learning in Buddhism i.e. meditation, wisdom and precepts. We have also seen incredibly enough, that they replace the Three Jewels (Three Refuges) and incorporate the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path.
It can be easy to pass over the Three Great Secret Laws. Yet beneath their literal appearance lies a more profound practice that consists of conviction/faith (shraddha) in one’s Buddha Nature (potential for Buddhahood) and the reality depicted by Nam-myoho-renge-kyo (Ichinen Sanzen in actuality). From this we might derive the reassurance that as long as we hold Nam-myoho-renge-kyo in our hearts and recognize that it is our life itself, then anywhere we find ourselves becomes the true Kaidan. As Nichiren says in On Attaining Buddhahood in this Lifetime,
Nevertheless, even though you chant and believe in Myoho-renge-kyo, if you think the Law is outside yourself, you are embracing not the Mystic Law but an inferior teaching. “Inferior teaching” means those other than this [Lotus] sutra, which are all expedient and provisional. No expedient or provisional teaching leads directly to enlightenment, and without the direct path to enlightenment you cannot attain Buddhahood, even if you practice lifetime after lifetime for countless kalpas. Attaining Buddhahood in this lifetime is then impossible. Therefore, when you chant myoho and recite renge, you must summon up deep faith that Myoho-renge-kyo is your life itself.
We are grateful to have had the opportunity to give these important laws more thought. There certainly is far more to understand than we ever could fit in this post. Hopefully our personal exploration might inspire others regarding the profound philosophy within Nichiren’s practice. Thank you for taking the time to read and share.
 Hokke Shuyo Sho, P. 215, Writings of Nichiren Shonin, Edited by George Tanabe, Jr, Compiled by Kyotsu Hori, University of Hawaii Press, January 2002
 ten major writings – The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism – http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=2258
 The Liturgy of Nichiren Buddhism, p. 18, SGI-USA, © 2010
 Three Great Secret Laws – The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism – http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=2330
 On Repaying Debts of Gratitude – The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin – SGI – http://www.sgilibrary.org/view.php?page=735&m=0&q=
 Nichiren’s Three Secrets, Paul O. Ingram, p. 215-221, NVMEN International Review of the History of Religions, Published by: BRILL
 Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, p. 168, Paul Williams, Routledge; 2 edition (August 31, 2008)
 Dharma (Buddhism) – Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma_(Buddhism)
 Gohonzon – The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism – http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=890
 Jacqueline Stone – Some Disputed Writings in the Nichiren Corpus: Textual, Hermeneutical and Historical Problems, P. 60
 Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō – Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daimoku
 The Teaching of the Eightfold Path, Shin Yatomi, SGI-USA – Learning: Buddhism 101 – Living Buddhism (November-December 2006)
 Chapter 11: The Three Great Secret Dharmas, Real Life with Ryuei – http://fraughtwithperil.com/ryuei/2010/06/18/chapter-11-the-three-great-secret-dharmas/
 Four Noble Truths – Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Noble_Truths
 The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin, On Attaining Buddhahood In This Lifetime – http://www.sgilibrary.org/view.php?page=3&m=0&q=